Fourth period    sialk                   last part 

began about 5000 years ago and continued about 4The period 500

Years ago. The most important cultural phenomenon . in this period is using primary writing . increasing population caused to replace painted pottery wares to plain and coarse wares. One of the important characters of this period is cylindrical seal and making of coarse bowls that known as beveled rim bowl among archaeologists . dr. s. m. shahmirzadi. Director of sialk reconsideration believed that mud brick structure in the surface of southern tepee is the oldest known ziggurate in the iran . he remarked it during his first investigation season . the mud brick structure was built beside of the main sialk temple . he wrote in the fourth season report excavation as follows. Today the height of sialk ziggurat reaches to 15/94 meters. It has third fioor platform. One landing at the south of first platform and one ascendant way, this way was shown to steps in ziggurat new reconstruction.

Professor girishman during the excavation in the southern tepee believed that building on tepee and cemetery B are in oan period and introduced it Acropolis of the city that destroyed nowadays. It is necessary to undertake controlled excavation in future to determine the age. Quality and application of this precious mud brick structure .

Fifth period

This period began about 3200 years ago . and belongs to new immigrants in sialk . they remained architecture monuments in the surface of tepee . on the architectural remains of last period . their "cemetery A" was located about 220 meters at south of the southern tepee. The different of this period and last period is the burial pattern that they practiced in which their dead were buried out of houses, the French expedition excavated fifteen graves in the cemetery A. thy found ceramic abjects. Bronze and iron tools, beads and pendants beside the dead . using grey wares is one their cultural characteristic….

Sixth period

The period lasted during 2800-2900 years ago in southem tepee. If refers to peoples that buried their dead in cemetery B about 250 meters far from west of the southern tepee. Professor girishman believes that new peoples arrived at this region in this period . they occupied it and the result of occupthing the tepee. It caused to destroy completely the houses of fifth period . new building replaced on the houses . it is said that the founded objects look like cemetery B.

The owner of the cemetery buried the dead with ceramic wares . bronze tools ; etc. then they filled the grave and formed it like ahill . some of the graves on the top of the tepee covered with stone slabs and big bricks that possible ; indicated a high social rank of dead. About 200 graves were excavated by French expedition.

The pottery wares in the cemetery are one of the most importand characteristic in sixth period. It seems that . they used in burial. Some of the wares are similar to animals and birds or have spout that decorated their surface completely with human . animal and geometric motive .

+ نوشته شده توسط مرتضی رمضانی در چهارشنبه بیست و یکم اسفند ۱۳۸۷ و ساعت 0:7 |

sialk part two

The results of french and iranian archaeological excavation:

The ancient tepee sialk has six cultural periods that consist as follow



Frirst and second period:

These settiement periods were in northern mound of sialk that is the oldest settiement in Sialk. According to girishman report. The early Silk inhabitants lived in temporary huts which made of reed and tree branches ; and covered them with mud . then the houses were built on adobe wall . also at second period they were built on mud-brick which shaped by hand the ceramic wares were hand-made completely :and were  cooked in the primitive kiln . in second period suface of wares were decorated with geometric.floral and animal motives .the peoples who lived in this period provided the foods by hunting . gathering cultivating  and stock breeding (small herds of sheep and goat) they used copper for making their small ornaments . Silk inhabitants buried their dead under house floor with some presents meanwhile ; the corps were covered with thin layer of "ochre"


Third period:

Habitants of northern tepee left their dwelling . about 6100 years ago. Probably some of them settled in southem tepee that is located in a distance of about 600 meters from northern tepee ; in this period ; the first habitants at southern tepee used rectangular brick mould for making their houses. The dead buried with objects and ornaments under the house floor. In the middle of third period kick wheel entered in the world of ceramic industry . the potteries were cooking in special kiln which controlled temperature and decorated with human and animal motives . surveying on the painting and archaeobotanic and zoo archaeological investigation indicated that in this period . kashan had moderate climate . there were different kinds of plants ; like pine. Willow ; tamarisk almond ; fig ;etc. and  animals like goat . sheep ; deer ; gazelle; cow ;chitta and marines like fish; frog ;turtle and birds like duck; stork ; vulture and so on ; in this period Silk craftsmen recognized the method of obtaining sliver from ore. They made decorative object and ornament. One of the most important cultural phenomena in the end of third period; is using of stamp seal indicated that there were development of trade in this perio

+ نوشته شده توسط مرتضی رمضانی در جمعه نهم اسفند ۱۳۸۷ و ساعت 20:25 |
part one  sialk

In the name of َ


The ancient mounds of sialk are located at southwest of Kashan; just on the right side of Kashan-fin road (amir kabir street) sialk consists of two northern and southern mounds ; which are about 600 meters far from each other and nearby these sites; there are two cemeteries A and B.

THE cemetery a dating back to 3500 years ago; and was located about 200 meters to the south of "southern tepee". Nowadays a new street crosses on the cemetrry and hidden it.  The cemetery B with antiquity of 3000 years old is located under the gardens and farm lands in the west side of tepee. In the early 1933/ some beautiful ceramic wares were appeared in paris which came from silk near Kashan . the representative of National museum of france; decided to get authority of excavation in sialk in the October 1933 . A french  expedition directed by professor "Roman Girishman" have responsibility on excavation in sialk kashan . The expedition did.  There seasons of excavations in 1933 ; 1934 ; 1937  and immediately in 1938 published its report in two volumes named "sialk kashan" in French at paris.

After the excavations of the French expedition and passing 70 years ' a new archaeological expedition under the title of the sialk reconsideration project ; did five excavation seasons in the northern and southern tepees with formal authority of Iranian cultural herit age organization with director of Dr .sadegh     malekshahmirzadi in 1999-2004


+ نوشته شده توسط مرتضی رمضانی در جمعه دوم اسفند ۱۳۸۷ و ساعت 18:35 |